Monday, February 20, 2017

BIODATA relating to education sector

BIODATA

1. NAME : Smt. Leena Mehendale, IAS Retd (1974 - Maharashtra)

2. DATE OF BIRTH : 31st January 1950

3. PLACE OF BIRTH : Dharangaon, Dist : Jalgaon, Maharashtra

4. EDUCATION :
M.Sc. Physics - Patna University 1970
M.Sc. Project Planning , Bradford University U.K. 1989
MBA (HR) GJ University, Hissar 2007
LLB Bombay University 2010
Lecturer in Physics 1972-73, Patna,
Prof Rural dev and HR at Yashada (Pune) 1989-90,
Acting VC of YCM Open Univ Nasik 1996.

5. OCCUPATION :
Recently Retd as SCIC (State Chief Information Commissioner), Goa for RTI Act, in the rank of a judge of Supreme Court. -- Since Oct 2013
Prior to that Member of CAT (Central Administrative Tribunal) in the rank of a judge of High Court – March 2010 to Sept 2013
Prior to that Additional Chief Secretary in Govt of Maharashtra since 2008
I joined Indian Administrative Service in July, 1974, Maharashtra cadre. Worked as a Senior Civil Servant since then on various postings, discharging responsibilities of Planning, Policy Making, Systems & their maintenance, sustainability and progress, including implementation and evaluation, Law and Order, Coordination and Monitoring as Administrator and a Quasi-Judicial Officer under several Acts.

6. EXPERTISE :
(a) Legal
(b) Education, HR and Training
(c) Revenue and Development Administration
(d) Industrial Development
(e) Environment and Energy Conservation
(f) Women Issues
(g) Ayush
(h) Agriculture and Animal Husbandary

7. JOB EXPERIENCE related to Education sector
Acting VC of Open University (Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University), Nashik –1995
Prof Rural dev and HR at Yashada (Pune) 1989-90
Lecturer in Physics 1972-73 (Patna)
PCRA 2002-2005-- Expertise in generating Research ideas and Field Studies – that being the mandate of PCRA for Energy Conservation. Coordinated with many CSIR Labs, IITs and private labs. Acquired 6 institutional Patents.
Strong believer and Practitioner that TV and Radio can and should be used for Education and HRD – Created many TV and Radio serials -- List at S. No 9 below
Collector Sangli -- Conceptualised and implemented a special training-cum-economic-rehabilitation activity for Devdasis in Sangli and Kolhapur districts – effectively stopping their dedication as devdasis –an age-old custom in vilage Jat of Sangli.
On the Advisory Board of IGNOU for Dyan-Darshan during its First year.
Director of YASHADA 1990-91( Officers' Trg Institute of Govt of Maharashtra)
Director, National Institute of Naturopathy 1991-1994 – This involved designing short term courses and forming syllabus for a degree course in Naturopathy
Deputy Secretary (Education), 1979 in-charge of newly framed schemes of Vocational, Non-formal and Adut education 
CEO Zila Parishad – included administration of district-level school education, and Skill-traing under Rural Devlopment Projects.
WMDC – included Entrepreneurship and Skill Training Programs.
Visiting Faculty for several training programs on issues related to women, energy, RTI,
Continuous training efforts, lectures and TV clips for use of र्णमाला-अनुसारी keyboard for typing Indian Languages on computers,
Pathami Sanskritam – ongoing Radio serial for teaching Sanskrit

8. LITERARY WORK : 25 Books in Hindi and Marathi (List appended) I write on Current topics, administration, education, popular science, children literature, Women issues, philosophy, Environment, Health issues. And occassionally fiction. Another 400 plus articles and serial writings on above issues, are not yet in the form of book but available on my various blogs.

9. TV and AIR SERIALS: In PCRA As incharge, I introduced a weekly T. V. Serial (150 episodes) and A weekly TV serial on Work efficiency (72 episodes) a weekly Radio Serial (180 episodes) on Energy Conservation for mass awarness. A series of video programs on Naturopathy. TV program to highlight the plight of Devdasis Radio serial (13 episodes) on Atomic Theory From Panaji - A TV serial --संकृत तुमची आमची Collaborative work of Kaushalam Trust, Sanskrit Bharari and DD Panaji - 2014 From Panaji -पठािम संकृतम् Serial for Radio Madhuban ( A Brahm Kumari Channel) 2014 On You-tube (by name sanskrittv) --(i) Recitation of 18 chapters of BhagavadGeeta (ii) A seriealised Shloka Vivechan (iii) 45 poems translated from Kusumagraj in Hindi, (iv) 4 Bal-Nataka and many more

10. LANGUAGES and Traveling:
Proficiency in Hindi, Marathi, English. Can read, write and speak Bengali, Can read or follow - Sanskrit, Gujrati, Punjabi, Nepali, Maithili, Oriya, Assamese, Bhojpuri, Ahirani. Travelled nearly 400 districts in India, studying various aspects. Routine official tours to 8 countries.

11. POSTINGS (In reverse Order upto 1991) : -- SCIC , Goa – will continue till 31 Jan 2015 -- CAT , Bangalore Member : Additional Chief Secretary, GAD (General Administration Department) Principal Secretary Animal Husbandary Department Joint Secretary to GoI and Executive Director, PCRA Joint Secretary, National Commission for Women, Managing Director, Maharashtra State Farming Corporation, Settlement Commissioner, Maharashtra, Divisional Commissioner, Nashik and acting Vice Chancellor of Nashik Open University Director, National Institute of Naturopathy, GoI, Ministry of Health

12. BOOKS
bal-sahitya
1) ये ये पावसा - short stories for Children in Marathi – 1995, 2006.
2) ि वषा आई - short stories for Children in Hindi --2001
3) सोनं देणारे क्षी - Narrations on bird watching -Marathi --1999. serialised on AIR Mumbai, 2009.
4) सुवण पंछी - Narrations on bird watching - Hindi --2003. serialised on AIR Delhi, 2005.
5) हमारा दोस् टोटो Narrations on bird watching in Hindi --2004.

lalit sahitya
6) नित् लीला - Translated /Own Short stories in Marathi --2000.
7) मन ना जाने मनको - Translated /Own Short stories in Hindi --2007
8) आनंदलोक Hindi -108 Poems translated from famous Marathi poet Kusumagraj --2003
9) एक था ेंगाड्या - Hindi- Novel, Translation from Marathi - Gyanpeeth 2007
10) िंडीच्या पलीकडे - Marathi- Novel, Translation from English -- 2008
11) एक शहर मेले त्याची गोष्ट - Translated /Own Short stories in Marathi --2009.

short-length books on social issues
12) देवदासी - Hindi - Narration of Rehab. Prog. for Devdasis undertaken in 1985 at Sangli & Kolhapur -- 1999
13) शीतला माता - Hindi- 17th Century Indian system of small pox vaccination-- 2005
14) गुजारा त्तेका कानून - Hindi - Provisions of sec 125 Cr.PC for maintenance grant to deserted women, children, old parents-- 2000.
Social and Administratuve Issues
15) जनता राय - Hindi - Essays on Administration and society --2005.
16) है कोई वक लोकतंत्रका! - Hindi- Essays on Administration and society- 2009.
17) मेरी प्रांतसाहबी - Hindi - Essays on Administration and society --2009.
18) इथे िचाराना वाव आहे - Marathi - Essays on Administration and society-- 2008.
19) समाज मनाचे िं - Marathi - Essays on Administration and society -- 2010.
20)प्रशासनाकडे वळून बघताना Marathi - Essays on Administration and society – 2013

Misc.
21) लोकशाही- Marathi-Translation from English - concepts of Democracy, for NBT 2003.
22) संगणकाची जादुई दुनिया Sanganakachi Jadui Duniya – Marathi –Computers simplified – 2010
23) Biodiesel - edited for PCRA – on alternative fuel -- 2005
24) युगंधरा - edited for PCRA - Women views on traveling & empowerment -- 2004

25)बूंद बूंद बात - edited for PCRA - on conservation techniques- 2004- Science and Technology

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Administrative reforms:

Administrative reforms:
--Leena Mehendale
1] Planning of  education should be  truly oriented to Development of  Human Resource and not merely as "yet another sector"
2] Area vs. sector administration: stress should shift back on former as it promotes coordination.
3] Rules of financial discipline are based on theory of disbelief introduced by the British 100 years back and not followed in their own country now.
4] Computers are used in a style that is clerk friendly but not policy friendly;  the method and design of data base creation does not give necessary clues to policy planners.
5] Systems have gone into disuse for lack of "maintenance". Rather than improving that we are creating new organizations hoping that their parallel working will be so much better that it will surpass all the problems of the regular system.
6] A lone Sheshan or Khairnar cannot reform the whole system (ref Mr. Shouri's article) Replication is possible by continuous training of senior officers with vertical and horizontal integration modules.
7] Executive, both bureaucratic and political are abducting and going for soft solutions.
8] Functioning of Govt. at Central govt. level is breeding tremendous frustration among Jt. Secretary level officials.
9] Inadequate  use of TV medium for vocational education, heath, women issues, literacy.
10] Administration lacks the technique to involve people or to strengthen the civil society.
(I make a distinction between NGOs and civil society)
11] Among the theories of financial management there is a concept that partial investment must start giving partial returns. This is not followed in govt.
12] “No punishment to the wrong doer: only compensation to victim” cuts at the very root of the concept of governance.
13] Supervisory and monitoring skills are lacking.
14] Reforms including honesty of purpose must start from above.
15] These  reforms need to be taken up in totality.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
list of articles

1.The Integrated Rural Development Programme for Women in Developing countries:What more can be done?
Published as a chapter in the book "Women Development & survival in the third world"
Edited by Halesh Afshar Longman Publication U.K.(1989) 

2.The Natural Way to Health -- IIC Journal 1991 
3.Towards Liberalisation :issues and challenges before Administration IIPA-1996-Competion Entry 
4.Eradication the Devdasi Cult, - Vimal Patil Femina, Illustrated Weekly, RIPA-1990, Ref. my work with Devdasis 
5.Trg. needs for Multilevel Planning :Lecture in ASCII - Hyderabad 1990 
6.New Strategies for Education
7.Anjaner -- call for a new model in tourism
8.Relooking at an Historical Irrigation system Yojana : 1999 
9.How Sericulture developed in Karnatak C.S.B. Magazine 1986
10.Relevant Aero-modeling -Aditya Mehendale
11.Health Sector reforms-Satish Agnihotri, IAS 

12.Has IAS become-redundant--1996(Type-I)
13.Has IAS become redundant--1996(Type-II)
14.Implementing IRDP for Devadasi women :M.Sc.Thesis
15.Designing an urban Transport system for fuel saving
16.Holi Festival & Trees
17.Book Review of "Colonising the Body" with Dr. Deodhar American Journal of Public Health Sciences 
18.Intemational Congress on Tropical sericulture
19.Sericulture & Rural Development
20.Philosophy, Health, Agriculture, Economics : A new paradigm of development
21.Respecting the system
22.IMR and Sex differential trends in States 
23.Role of EGS in Drought Hit Maharashtra -- Lokrajya 
24.Creamy layers, Mandal, unemployment & Reservation
25.Consummerism Vs. Environment. A new economic model for 21st century
26.Role of Industries in Education
27.Stress Management for Junior IAS Officers
28.Salvaging examination system : an Urgent need
29.Two cheers for judiciary
30.On the sudden death of Shri Deepak Jog.
31.Ideal system of Government
32.Why study Sanskrit 
33.Payment of Subsistence Allowance: -- A case study in systemic changes for office efficiency. 
34.My experience of computerization in the Govt
35.Risk factors in Mango Cultivation : A.V.Randive 
delhi_se1
36.Revival of Sanskrit 
37.Sati, the real Legend : Pioneer 
38.Empowerment of women :Yojana Aug 2001 

45.NCW an Appraisal : Yojana 
46. Crime situation in India: Yojana Feb 2002
47. Need for Speedier Criminal Procedure : CBI Bulletin, April 1999, Vol VII, No. 4
48. An appeal: of a bureaucrat
mainstream
39.Crime Profile of Maharashtra : Rape, Mainstream 16 Jun2001 40. Crime Profile of Maharashtra : Dowry Deaths Mainstream 22Sep2001 
41. Crime situation in India: Mainstream 6Dec2001 
42. In-laws, Outlaws, and Rule of Law : Mainstream 25Dec2001 
43. Crime situation in Bihar : Rape. Mainstream 26Jan2002 
44. Oh! to be born and educated: Mainstream July 2002 
45. Fuel does grow on trees
delhi_se2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
e-governance with a human face
1] Why do we go for e-g?
  • cut costs?
  • improve efficiency?
  • reduce corruption?
  • empower people?
  • for better decisions?
  • reduce decision time?
  Have we stopped to ask ourselves what do we mean by these terms?
2] Did you try to introduce e-g in your office?  What was the response?
3] Is your office computerised? Since when? To what extent?
    Have you measured the impact in terms of the above 6 parameters?
4] Have you measured how many people have become redundant?
    What are your plans for their redeployment?
5] What is the role of e-g in g-g?
     My estimate is : initially 15%  gradually upto 75%.
How does this graduation take place? through what process?


6]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+vªÉɪÉ-7
ªÉ½þ {ÉzÉä - ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ Eäò xÉɨÉ
®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉiÉÉ EòÉ xÉÉ¨É ºÉÖxÉiÉä ½þÒ {ɽþ±ÉÒ VÉÉä ¤ÉÉiÉ Ênù¨ÉÉMÉ ¨Éå +ÉiÉÒ ½èþ ´É½þ ½èþ ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É ÊVɺÉEòÉ +º{ÉiÉɱÉÉå ¨Éå ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä-ÊlÉ®ìú{ÉÒ ºÉä EéòºÉ®ú EòÉ ®úÉäMÉ nÚù®ú Eò®úxÉä Eäò ʱÉB ¤É½ÖþiÉɪÉiÉ ºÉä ={ɪÉÉäMÉ ÊEòªÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ * ºÉÉlÉ ½þÒ Ênù¨ÉÉMÉ ¨Éå +ÉiÉÒ ½éþ ¸ÉÒ¨ÉiÉÒ ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ ÊVÉx½þÉåxÉä ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É EòÒ JÉÉäVÉ EòÒ, VÉÉä Ê´É·É EòÒ {ɽþ±ÉÒ ¨Éʽþ±ÉÉ xÉÉä¤ÉÖ±É {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú Ê´ÉVÉäiÉÉ ½éþ, VÉÉä =xÉ lÉÉäcä÷ ±ÉÉäMÉÉå ¨Éå ºÉä ½éþ ÊVÉx½åþ nùÉä ¤ÉÉ®ú xÉÉä¤ÉÖ±É {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú ʨɱÉÉ, VÉÉä =xÉ nùÉä ¤ÉÎSSɪÉÉå EòÒ ¨ÉÉÄ ½éþ ÊVÉxɨÉå ºÉä BEò <Ê®úxÉ Ê´É·É EòÒ nÚùºÉ®úÒ +Éè®ú ¨Éʽþ±ÉÉ xÉÉä¤ÉÖ±É {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú Ê´ÉVÉäiÉÉ ½éþ +Éè®ú nÚùºÉ®úÒ <´ÉÉ BEò +SUôÒ ºÉÉʽþÎiªÉEò * <´ÉÉ xÉä ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ EòÉ SÉÊ®újÉ Ê±ÉJÉÉ ½èþ * <ºÉä {ÉgøEò®ú ¸ÉÒ ±ÉÉ±É ¤É½þÉnÖù®ú ¶ÉɺjÉÒ EòÉä ¤Éc÷Ò º¡ÚòÌiÉ Ê¨É±ÉÒ lÉÒ +Éè®ú =x½þÉåxÉä º´ÉªÉÆ <ºÉ {ÉÖºiÉEò EòÉ Ê½þxnùÒ ¨Éå +xÉÖ´ÉÉnù ÊEòªÉÉ * BäºÉÒ |ÉÊiɦÉɶÉÉʱÉxÉÒ ´ÉèYÉÉÊxÉEò EòÒ VÉÒ´ÉxÉÒ VÉÉxÉä ʤÉxÉÉ ¦ÉÉèÊiÉEò ¶ÉɺjÉ EòÒ {ÉgøÉ<Ç +vÉÚ®úÒ ®ú½þ VÉɪÉäMÉÒ * <ºÉ {ÉÖºiÉEò EòÉ ªÉ½þ +vªÉÉªÉ ¸ÉÒ¨ÉiÉÒ ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ EòÉä ºÉ¨ÉÌ{ÉiÉ ½èþ *
®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä-ºÉÊGòªÉiÉÉ Eäò +xÉÖºÉÆvÉÉxÉ EòÒ Eò½þÉxÉÒ EòÉä {ÉgøxÉä ºÉä ªÉ½þ ʶÉIÉÉ Ê¨É±ÉiÉÒ ½èþ ÊEò |ÉEÞòÊiÉ EòÉ PÉ]õxÉÉGò¨É iÉÉä SɱÉiÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ ±ÉäÊEòxÉ +ÉÄJÉä-¶É®úÒ®ú EòÒ +Éè®ú ¨ÉxÉ EòÒ JÉÖ±ÉÒ ®úJÉÉä iɦÉÒ |ÉEÞòÊiÉ Eäò ®ú½þºªÉÉå EòÉ {ÉiÉÉ ±ÉMÉ ºÉEòiÉÉ ½èþ * nÚùºÉ®úÒ Ê¶ÉIÉÉ ªÉ½þ ʨɱÉiÉÒ ½èþ ÊEò ªÉÊnù {ÉÊ®ú¸É¨É ºÉä Pɤɮúɽþ]õ ½þÉäiÉÒ ½þÉä iÉÉä ªÉ½þ ºÉÒJÉxÉä-ºÉÒJÉÉxÉä EòÉ, YÉÉxÉÉVÉÇxÉ EòÉ +ÉʴɹEòÉ®ú EòÉ EòÉ¨É UôÉäc÷ nùÉä *
ºÉxÉ 1895 ¨Éå ¸ÉÒ ®úÉäh]äõVÉäxÉ xÉä IÉ ÊEò®úhÉÉå EòÉä {ÉiÉÉ ±ÉMÉɪÉÉ (8 xɴɨ¤É®ú, 1895) (<ºÉ ÊnùxÉÉÆEò ºÉä ±ÉäEò®ú +MɱÉä nùÉä ´É¹ÉÉç iÉEò Ê´ÉʦÉzÉ +JɤÉÉ®úÉå ¨Éå IÉ ÊEò®úhÉÉå Eäò Ê´É¹ÉªÉ ¨Éå VÉÉä ¦ÉÒ ´ªÉÆMÉÊSÉjÉ, ´ªÉÆMÉEòÊ´ÉiÉÉBÆ +Éè®ú ´ªÉÆMɱÉäJÉ ÊxÉEò±Éä =x½åþ {ÉgøEò®ú {ÉiÉÉ SɱÉiÉÉ ½èþ ÊEò {ÉɶSÉÉiªÉ näù¶ÉÉå ¨Éå Ê´ÉYÉÉxÉ ÊEòºÉ Eònù®ú VÉxÉ ¨ÉÉxÉºÉ Eäò Ênù±ÉÉä Ênù¨ÉÉMÉ EòÉ BEò +ʦÉzÉ +ÆMÉ ½èþ ) x-ray +Éè®ú antimatter nùÉä BäºÉä ´ÉèYÉÉÊxÉEò +ÉʴɹEòÉ®ú ½éþ ÊVÉxÉ {É®ú ºÉ´ÉÉÇÊvÉEò ´ªÉÆMÉ-ºÉÉʽþiªÉ ʱÉJÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ * VÉxÉ´É®úÒ 1896 ¨Éå VÉ¤É =xÉEòÒ Ê´ÉʦÉzÉ Ê®ú{ÉÉä]çõ |ÉEòÉʶÉiÉ ½Öþ<Ç iÉÉä BEò ´ÉèYÉÉÊxÉEò EòÒ +ÉÄJÉä ¤É½ÖþiÉ JÉÖ±ÉÒ ½Öþ<Ç lÉÒ *
{Écä÷ iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ IÉ ÊEò®úhÉå =ºÉä expose Eò®ú näùiÉÒ ½éþ *
+¤É }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉåºÉ BEò BäºÉÒ ÊGòªÉÉ ½èþ VÉÉä ÊEò EÖòUô {ÉnùÉlÉÉç ¨Éå {ÉÉ<Ç VÉÉiÉÒ ½èþ *
¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É xÉä ºÉÉäSÉÉ ÊEò ½þÉä xÉ ½þÉä ªÉä }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉå]õ {ÉnùÉlÉÇ =iºÉVÉÇxÉ Eäò ºÉ¨ÉªÉ ºÉÉvÉÉ®úhÉ |ÉEòÉ¶É ÊEò®úhÉÉå Eäò ºÉÉlÉ IÉ ÊEò®úhÉä ¦ÉÒ =iºÉÌVÉiÉ Eò®úiÉä ½þÉå ÊVÉx½åþ +où¶ªÉ ½þÉäxÉä Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ +¤É iÉEò xɽþÓ {ɽþSÉÉxÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½þÉä +Éè®ú <ºÉä VÉÉÄSÉxÉä EòÉ iÉ®úÒEòÉ ¦ÉÒ ¤Éc÷É ºÉ®ú±É ½þÉäMÉÉ * ÊEòºÉÒ }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉå]õ {ÉnùÉlÉÇ EòÉä ºÉÚªÉÇ|ÉEòÉ¶É ¨Éå ®úJÉä Ê¡ò®ú =ºÉä +ÆvÉä®äú ¨Éå ®úJÉEò®ú =ºÉEäò ºÉɨÉxÉä EòɱÉä EòÉMÉVÉ ¨Éå ʱÉ{É]õÒ BEò ¡òÉä]õÉäOÉÉÊ¡òEò {±Éä]õ ®úJÉ nùÉä * VÉÉä où¶ªÉ |ÉEòÉ¶É ÊxÉEò±ÉäMÉÉ ´É½þ iÉÉä EòɱÉä EòÉMÉVÉ EòÉä {ÉÉ®ú Eò®ú ¡òÉä]õÉäOÉÉÊ¡òEò {±Éä]õ iÉEò xɽþÓ {ɽÖÄþSÉ ºÉEòiÉÉ ±ÉäÊEòxÉ IÉ ÊEò®úhÉä {ɽÖÄþSÉ Eò®ú =ºÉä expose Eò®ú ºÉEòiÉÒ ½éþ +Éè®ú <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú =xÉEòÒ ={ÉκlÉÊiÉ VÉÉxÉÒ VÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÒ ½èþ *
=ºÉ VɨÉÉxÉä ¨Éå ÊVÉiÉxÉä ¦ÉÒ }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉå]õ {ÉnùÉlÉÇ ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É EòÉä ¨ÉɱÉÚ¨É lÉä =xÉ ºÉ¦ÉÒ {É®ú ªÉ½þ |ɪÉÉäMÉ ÊEòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ +Éè®ú ÊxɹEò¹ÉÇ ªÉ½þ ÊxÉEò±ÉÉ ÊEò ÊEòºÉÒ ¦ÉÒ }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉå]õ {ÉnùÉlÉÇ ºÉä +où¶ªÉ ÊEò®úhÉå xɽþÓ ÊxÉEò±ÉiÉÒ ½éþ ʺɴÉÉ nùÉä iÉÒxÉ {ÉnùÉlÉÉç Eäò -{ÉÉä]äõÊ¶ÉªÉ¨É ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ºÉ±¡äò]õ, ºÉÉäÊb÷ªÉ¨É ªÉÚ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ºÉ±¡äò]õ, ªÉÖÚ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É xÉÉ<]Åäõ]õ <ºÉEäò ¤ÉÉnù ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É xÉä Eò<Ç |ɪÉÉäMÉ ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É Eäò }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉå]õ ªÉÉèÊMÉEòÉå {É®ú ÊEòB * iÉ¤É xÉ<Ç ¤ÉÉiÉ ºÉɨÉxÉä +É<Ç * ºÉÚªÉÇÊEò®úhÉÉå EòÉä ºÉÉäJÉxÉä {É®ú ªÉä {ÉnùÉlÉÇ }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉå]õ |ÉEòÉ¶É iÉÉä ¤É½ÖþiÉ Eò¨É näù®ú iÉEò =iºÉÌVÉiÉ Eò®úiÉä ½éþ ±ÉäÊEòxÉ ¤ÉäC¤Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå EòÉ =iºÉVÉÇxÉ Eò<Ç ÊnùxÉÉå iÉEò ½þÉäiÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ *
¤ÉäCºÉä®äú±É Eäò |ɪÉÉäMÉ ½þÉäiÉä MÉB * +SÉÉxÉEò BäºÉÉ ¦ÉÒ ½Öþ+É VÉ¤É Eò<Ç ÊnùxÉÉå iÉEò +ÉEòÉ¶É ¤ÉÉnù±ÉÉå ºÉä føEòÉ ½þÉäxÉä Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É Eäò ´Éä xɨÉÚxÉä ÊVÉxÉ {É®ú |ɪÉÉäMÉ ½þÉäxÉä lÉä, ºÉÚªÉÇ|ÉEòÉ¶É ¨Éå xɽþÓ ®úJÉä MÉB * ʺɡò =x½åþ EòɱÉä EòÉMÉVÉ ¨Éå ʱÉ{É]äõ ¡òÉä]õÉäOÉÉÊ¡òEò {±Éä]õ Eäò {ÉÉºÉ ®úJÉÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ * ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É Eäò |ɪÉÉäMÉÉå Eäò ¨ÉÖiÉÉʤÉEò develop Eò®úEäò näùJÉxÉÉ BEò Ê¡òVÉÚ±É ¤ÉÉiÉ lÉÒ * Ê¡ò®ú ¦ÉÒ ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É xÉä <ºÉ ºÉƦÉÉ´ÉxÉÉ ºÉä ¨ÉÖĽþ xɽþÓ ¨ÉÉäc÷É * BEò {±Éä]õ EòÉä =ºÉxÉä bä÷´É±É{É Eò®ú ½þÒ b÷ɱÉÉ +Éè®ú =ºÉä PÉÉä®ú +ɶSɪÉÇ ½Öþ+É CªÉÉåÊEò ´É½þ {±Éä]õ ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå ºÉä expose ½þÉä SÉÖEòÒ lÉÒ * <ºÉºÉä ªÉ½þ ÊxɹEò¹ÉÇ ÊxÉEò±ÉÉ ÊEò ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå Eäò =iºÉVÉÇxÉ Eäò ʱɪÉä
Ê¡ò®ú iÉÉä ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É xÉä BäºÉä ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ªÉÖHò {ÉnùÉlÉÉç {É®ú ¦ÉÒ |ɪÉÉäMÉ ÊEòB VÉÉä }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉå]õ xɽþÓ lÉä * Ê¡ò®ú ¦ÉÒ =xɨÉå ºÉä +où¶ªÉ ÊEò®úhÉå ÊxÉEò±ÉiÉÒ ½Öþ<Ç {ÉÉ<Ç MÉ<Ç +Éè®ú ªÉ½þ ʺÉrù ½þÉä MɪÉÉ ÊEò ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå EòÉ =iºÉVÉÇxÉ ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É iÉi´É EòÉ ½þÒ BEò MÉÖhÉ ½èþ * <ºÉ =iºÉVÉÇxÉ EòÉ }±ÉÖ®úÉäºÉåºÉ ºÉä EòÉä<Ç ºÉƤÉÆvÉ xɽþÓ *
Eò®úÒ¤É 1897 ¨Éå ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ xÉä 1895 ¨Éå ¨ÉɪÉÉÇ EòÒ ¶ÉÉnùÒ {Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ ºÉä ½Öþ<Ç * {Éä®úÒ º´ÉiÉ: ¦ÉÉèÊiÉEòÒ Eäò +vªÉÉ{ÉEò lÉä * =x½þÉåxÉä Ê{ÉZÉÉä <±ÉèÎC]ÅõʺÉ]õÒ EòÒ +lÉÉÇiÉ C´ÉÉ]Çõ®ú ÊGòº]õ±É Eäò +ɪÉiÉÉå {É®ú BEò Ê´Éʶɹ]õ °ü{É ºÉä nù¤ÉÉ´É b÷ɱÉxÉä {É®ú {ÉènùÉ ½þÉäxÉä ´ÉɱÉä Ê´ÉtÖiÉÒªÉ +É´Éä¶É EòÒ JÉÉäVÉ EòÒ lÉÒ +Éè®ú ºÉÉlÉ ½þÒ SÉÖ¨¤ÉEòi´É Eäò EÖòUô +ÉʴɹEòÉ®úÉå Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ ¦ÉÒ =x½åþ ¨ÉÉxªÉiÉÉ Ê¨É±É SÉÖEòÒ lÉÒ * Ê¡ò®ú ¦ÉÒ =xÉEòÒ MÉ®úÒ¤ÉÒ EòÒ {ÉÊ®úκlÉÊiÉ EòÉªÉ¨É lÉÒ +Éè®ú ÊVÉºÉ ºEÚò±É ¨Éå ´É½þ {ÉgøÉiÉä lÉä ´É½þ ¦ÉÒ UôÉä]õÉ ºÉÉ ºEÚò±É lÉÉ ÊVɺÉEäò {ÉÉºÉ +ÉvÉÖÊxÉEò |ɪÉÉäMɶÉɱÉÉ xÉɨÉEò EòÉä<Ç Eò¨É®úÉ xÉ lÉÉ * <ºÉEäò ¤ÉÉ´ÉVÉÚnù {Éä®úÒ Eäò |ɪÉÉäMÉ SɱÉiÉä ®ú½þiÉä lÉä +Éè®ú ¨Éä®úÒ ¦ÉÒ BEò ¤ÉSSÉÒ <®úÒxÉ EòÒ ¨ÉÉÄ ¤ÉxÉ SÉÖEòxÉä {É®ú ¦ÉÒ =xÉEòÉ ºÉÉlÉ ÊnùªÉÉ Eò®úiÉÒ lÉÒ * ºÉÉlÉ ½þÒ PÉ®ú EòÉ JÉSÉÉÇ SɱÉÉxÉä Eäò ʱÉB BEò ºEÚò±É ¨Éå ¤ÉÎSSɪÉÉå EòÉä {ÉgøÉxÉä EòÉ EòÉ¨É ¦ÉÒ Eò®úiÉÒ lÉÒ * =xÉ {É®ú vÉÖxÉ ºÉ´ÉÉ®ú lÉÒ b÷ÉìC]õ®äú]õ Eò®úxÉä EòÒ * ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É Eäò |ɪÉÉäMÉÉå EòÉä {ÉgøxÉä {É®ú =x½þÉåxÉä <ºÉ xɪÉä Ê´É¹ÉªÉ EòÉä +{ÉxÉä |ɪÉÉäMÉÉå Eäò ʱÉB SÉÖxÉÉ *

¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå Eäò Ê´É¹ÉªÉ ¨Éå +¤É iÉEò ªÉ½þ {ÉiÉÉ SÉ±É SÉÖEòÉ lÉÉ ÊEò ionized) ½þÉä VÉÉiÉÒ ½èþ * ¨Éä®úÒ xÉä <ºÉ +ɪÉxÉÒEò®úhÉ EòÉä (ionization) <±ÉèC]ÅõÉäºEòÉä{É xÉÉ¨É BEò ={ÉEò®úhÉ uùÉ®úÉ ¨ÉÉ{ÉÉ +Éè®ú <ºÉEòÉ ={ɪÉÉäMÉ ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É Eäò ÊEòºÉÒ ¦ÉÒ {ÉnùÉlÉÇ ºÉä ÊxÉEò±ÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉÒ ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå EòÒ |ÉJÉ®úiÉÉ (intensity) EòÉä VÉÉxÉxÉä Eäò ʱÉB ÊEòªÉÉ * ¨Éä®úÒ xÉä {ÉɪÉÉ ÊEò ½þ®ú ½þɱÉiÉ ¨Éå ÊEòºÉÒ ¦ÉÒ {ÉnùÉlÉÇ ºÉä ÊxÉEò±ÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉä ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå EòÒ |ÉJÉ®úiÉÉ (intensity) <ºÉ ¤ÉÉiÉ {É®ú ÊxɦÉÇ®ú Eò®úiÉÒ ½èþ ÊEò =ºÉ¨Éå ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É Eäò ÊEòiÉxÉä {É®ú¨ÉÉhÉÖ ={ÉκlÉiÉ ½éþ * {ÉnùÉlÉÇ EòÒ ÊEòºÉÒ ¦ÉÒ ¦ÉÉèÊiÉEò ªÉÉ ®úɺÉɪÉÊxÉEò +´ÉºlÉÉ ºÉä <ºÉ¨Éå EòÉä<Ç +xiÉ®ú xɽþÓ {Éc÷iÉÉ ½èþ * nù¤ÉÉ´É, MɨÉÇ Eò®úxÉÉ, nÚùºÉ®äú ®úɺÉɪÉÊxÉEò ªÉÉèÊMÉEò ¤ÉxÉÉxÉÉ +ÉÊnù ÊEòºÉÒ ¦ÉÒ ¤ÉÉiÉ ºÉä
+xªÉjÉ ¦ÉÒ <ºÉ |ÉÊGòªÉÉ EòÒ ={ÉκlÉÊiÉ ªÉÉ +xÉÖ{ÉκlÉÊiÉ JÉÉäVÉxÉä EòÒ vÉÖxÉ ¨Éå ¨Éä®úÒ xÉä ÊxɶSÉªÉ ÊEòªÉÉ ÊEò ´Éä BäºÉä |ÉiªÉäEò {ÉnùÉlÉÇ EòÒ VÉÉÄSÉ Eò®åúMÉÒ ÊVɺɨÉå ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ½èþ * BäºÉä ½þÒ nùÉä +ªÉºEòÉå ªÉÉ JÉÊxÉVÉÉå (ores) Ê{ÉSɤ±Éåb÷ +Éè®ú SÉÉEòÉæ±ÉÉ<]õ EòÒ VÉÉÄSÉ ¨Éå =x½åþ {ÉiÉÉ SɱÉÉ ÊEò
¨Éä®úÒ +Éè®ú CªÉÚ®úÒ xÉä {ÉÉä±ÉÉäÊxÉªÉ¨É +Éè®ú ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É EòÉ {ÉiÉÉ iÉÉä ±ÉMÉÉ Ê±ÉªÉÉ ±ÉäÊEòxÉ =ºÉä Ê{ÉSɤ±Éåb÷ ºÉä +±ÉMÉ Eò®úxÉä EòÉ EòÉ¨É +¦ÉÒ ¤ÉÉEòÒ ½þÒ lÉÉ * ªÉ½þ SÉÖxÉÉèiÉÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ nÆù{ÉÊiÉ xÉä º´ÉÒEòÉ®ú EòÒ *
iÉÖ¨½äþ ªÉ½þ VÉÉxÉEò®ú +ɶSɪÉÇ ½þÉäMÉÉ ÊEò ¨Éä®úÒ EòÉä ªÉ½þ ºÉÉ®äú |ɪÉÉäMÉ Eò®úxÉä Eäò ʱɪÉä EòÉä<Ç +ÉvÉÖÊxÉEò |ɪÉÉäMɶÉɱÉÉ ={ɱɤvÉ xɽþÓ lÉÒ * {Éä®úÒ Eäò ½þÒ ºEÚò±É Eäò BEò UôÉä]äõ ºÉä ºÉÒ±ÉxÉ ¦É®äú MÉÉänùÉ¨É ¨Éå ¨Éä®úÒ ªÉä |ɪÉÉäMÉ ÊEòªÉÉ Eò®úiÉÒ lÉÒ * +MɱÉä ºÉÉiÉ +É`ö ´É¹ÉÉç iÉEò ¨Éä®úÒ Eäò |ɪÉÉäMÉ BäºÉä ½þÒ ºÉÒ±ÉxÉ ¦É®äú Eò¨É®úÉå ¨Éå, ]õÒxÉ ªÉÉ JÉ{É®èú±É EòÒ ]Úõ]õÒ-¡Úò]õÒ ¶Éäb÷ Eäò xÉÒSÉä ½Öþ+É Eò®úiÉä lÉä +Éè®ú |ɪÉÉäMÉ ¦ÉÒ EèòºÉä-Eò<Ç-Eò<Ç ÊEò±ÉÉä Ê{ÉSɤ±Éåb÷ EòÉä +±ÉMÉ-+±ÉMÉ +ìʺÉb÷Éå ¨Éå PÉÉä±ÉxÉÉ ÊxÉlÉÉ®úxÉÉ, UôÉxÉxÉÉ, ¤Éc÷Ò-¤Éc÷Ò Eòc÷ÉʽþªÉÉå ¨Éå =¤ÉɱÉxÉÉ, =¤É±ÉiÉä ½ÖþB ʨɸÉhÉ EòÉä +xÉ´É®úiÉ °ü{É ºÉä EòÉ`ö Eäò Sɨ¨ÉSÉÉå ºÉä SɱÉÉiÉä ®ú½þxÉÉ -±ÉäÊEòxÉ <ºÉ {ÉÊ®ú¸É¨ÉÉå ºÉä ¨Éä®úÒ +Éè®ú {Éä®úÒ ¤É®úɤɮú VÉÚZÉiÉä ®ú½äþ * ºÉƪÉÉäMÉ ºÉä +Éìκ]ÅõªÉÉ EòÒ BEò EÆò{ÉxÉÒ xÉä VÉÉä Ê{ÉSɤ±Éåb÷ ºÉä ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ÊxÉEòɱÉEò®ú =ºÉä ¶ÉÒ¶Éä Eäò EòÉ®úÉä¤ÉÉ®ú ¨Éå EòÉ¨É ±ÉÉiÉÒ lÉÒ, ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ÊxÉEò±Éä ½ÖþB Eò<Ç ]õxÉ +ªÉºEò ¨Éä®úÒ EòÉä ¨ÉɨÉÚ±ÉÒ ºÉÒ EòÒ¨ÉiÉ {É®ú ¤ÉäSÉxÉÉ º´ÉÒEòÉ®ú ÊEòªÉÉ * <ºÉ Ê{ÉSɤ±Éåb÷ {É®ú |ɪÉÉäMÉ Eò®úiÉä Eò®úiÉä SÉÉ®ú ´É¹ÉÇ ¤ÉÒiÉ MÉB * 2 x106 MÉÖxÉÉ +lÉÉÇiÉ ¤ÉÒºÉ ±ÉÉJÉ MÉÖxÉÉ +ÊvÉEò lÉÒ *
¨Éä®úÒ +Éè®ú {Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ xÉä {ÉɪÉÉ ÊEò ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É ºÉä ÊxÉEò±ÉiÉä =iºÉVÉÇxÉ Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ |ɪÉÉäMɶÉɱÉÉ ¨Éå ®úJÉä ¶ÉÒ¶Éä Eäò ¤ÉiÉÇxÉ BEò ½þ±EòÒ ºÉÒ }±ÉÚ®úÉäºÉåºÉ VÉèºÉÒ ½þÒ +ɦÉÉ ºÉä SɨÉEòiÉä ®ú½þiÉä ½éþ * ªÉ½þ ½èþ BEò ¨ÉVÉä EòÒ ¤ÉÉiÉ * ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É xÉä ºÉÉäSÉÉ lÉÉ ÊEò }±ÉÚ®úÉäºÉåºÉ Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ IÉ ÊEò®úhÉå ÊxÉEò±ÉiÉÒ ½éþ, +Éè®ú ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ºÉä ÊxÉEò±ÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉÒ ÊEò®úhÉå IÉ ÊEò®úhÉå ½þÒ ½éþ * ¤ÉÉnù ¨Éå =ºÉxÉä {ÉɪÉÉ ÊEò ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ºÉä ÊxÉEò±ÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉÒ ÊEò®úhÉå IÉ ÊEò®úhÉå xɽþÓ ½éþ * +Éè®ú +¤É ¨Éä®úÒ xÉä {ÉɪÉÉ ÊEò }±ÉÚ®úÉäºÉåºÉ Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ ªÉ½þ ÊEò®úhÉå xɽþÓ ÊxÉEò±ÉiÉÓ ¤ÉαEò xÉ ÊEò®úhÉÉå Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ }±ÉÚ®úÉäºÉåºÉ {ÉènùÉ ½þÉäiÉÉ ½èþ *
Ê{ÉÊ®úªÉÉìÊb÷Eò ]äõ¤ÉÖ±É ¨Éå 88´ÉÓ VÉMɽþ {É®ú ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É Ê¡ò]õ ¤Éè`öiÉÉ ½èþ * 1903 Eäò nùÉè®úÉxÉ Andre Deburne xÉä 89´ÉÓ VÉMɽþ {É®ú ¤Éè`öxÉä ´ÉɱÉä +ìÎC]õÊxÉªÉ¨É EòÒ JÉÉäVÉ EòÒ VÉÉä ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É +Éè®ú ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É EòÒ iÉ®ú½þ ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉ ½èþ (+lÉÉÇiÉ =ºÉºÉä =ºÉÒ |ÉEòÉ®ú =iºÉVÉÇxÉ ÊxÉEò±ÉiÉä ½éþ ÊVÉºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É ªÉÉ ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É ºÉä) * ]äõ¤ÉÖ±É ¨Éå 90´ÉÓ VÉMɽþ {É®ú Ê¡ò]õ ¤Éè`öiÉÉ ½èþ lÉÉäÊ®úªÉ¨É, 92´ÉÓ VÉMɽþ {É®ú ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É +Éè®ú VÉMɽþ {É®ú Ê¡ò]õ ¤Éè`öiÉÉ ½èþ lÉÉäÊ®úªÉ¨É 92´ÉÓ VÉMɽþ {É®ú ªÉÖ®äúÊxÉªÉ¨É +Éè®ú ´ÉÓ VÉMɽþ {É®ú {ÉÉä±ÉÉäÊxÉªÉ¨É * 91´ÉÓ VÉMɽþ {É®ú Ê¡ò]õ ¤Éè`öxÉä ´ÉɱÉä |ÉÉä]ìõÎC]õÊxÉªÉ¨É EòÒ JÉÉäVÉ Eò®úÒ¤É 15 ´É¹ÉÉç ¤ÉÉnù +Éì]õÉä ½þÉxÉ xÉä EòÒ (ªÉ½þ ¦ÉÒ ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉ iÉi´É ½èþ *)
®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉiÉÉ EòÒ JÉÉäVÉ +Éè®ú <ºÉEäò Ê´É¹ÉªÉ ¨Éå ¤É½ÖþiÉɪÉiÉ ºÉä ÊEòªÉä MɪÉä |ɪÉÉäMÉÉå Eäò ʱɪÉä ¸ÉÒ ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É, ¸ÉÒ {Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ +Éè®ú ¸ÉÒ¨ÉiÉÒ ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ EòÉä ºÉxÉ 1903 ¨Éå ¦ÉÉèÊiÉEò ¶ÉɺjÉ EòÉ xÉÉä¤É±É {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú BEòÊjÉiÉ °ü{É ºÉä ÊnùªÉÉ MɪÉÉ * xÉÉä¤É±É {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú EòÉ Ê´ÉiÉ®úhÉ ¤Écä÷ vÉÚ¨ÉvÉÉ¨É ºÉä ÊEòªÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ * º´ÉÒb÷xÉ EòÒ ®úÉVÉvÉÉxÉÒ º]õÉìEò ½þÉä¨É ¨Éå ºÉƺÉÉ®ú Eäò MÉhªÉ¨ÉÉxªÉ ´ÉèYÉÉÊxÉEòÉå ¤ÉÖ±ÉɪÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ xÉÉä¤É±É {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú Ê´ÉVÉäiÉÉ+Éå Eäò ¦ÉɹÉhÉ ½þÉäiÉä ½éþ * =x½åþ Eò<Ç +xªÉ ºÉ¨¨ÉÉxÉ ÊnùB VÉÉiÉä ½éþ * ±ÉäÊEòxÉ {Éä®úÒ +Éè®ú ¨Éä®úÒ +{ÉxÉä |ɪÉÉäMÉÉå EòÒ vÉÖxÉ ¨Éå ¨Éä®úÒ Eäò ºÉɨÉxÉä +¦ÉÒ BEò |ɪÉÉäMÉ +vÉÚ®úÉ ½þÒ lÉÉ * Ê{ÉSɤ±Éåb÷ ¨Éå ºÉä =x½þÉåxÉä ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É C±ÉÉä®úÉ
VɨÉÉxÉÉ ºÉxÉ 1906 EòÉ lÉÉ * ¨Éä®úÒ EòÉä ªÉÖÊxÉ´É̺É]õÒ ¨Éå |ÉÉvªÉÉ{ÉEò Eäò {Énù {É®ú ±ÉäxÉä Eäò Ê´É¹ÉªÉ ¨Éå ¤Écä÷ ´ÉÉnù-Ê´É´ÉÉnù ½ÖþB CªÉÉåÊEò =ºÉ VɨÉÉxÉä ¨Éå ¨Éʽþ±ÉÉ+Éå EòÉä £òÉÆºÉ VÉèºÉä |ÉMÉiÉ näù¶É ¨Éå ¦ÉÒ ªÉÖÊxÉ´É̺É]õÒ ¨Éå {ÉgøÉxÉä EòÉ EòÉ¨É xɽþÓ Eò®úxÉä ÊnùªÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ lÉÉ * Ê¡ò®ú ¦ÉÒ =xÉEäò xÉÉä¤É±É-{ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú EòÒ +Éä®ú näùJÉEò®ú +Éè®ú ºÉƦɴÉiÉ: {Éä®úÒ EòÒ ¨ÉÞiªÉÖ Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ =x½åþ |ÉÉvªÉÉ{ÉEò Eäò °ü{É ¨Éå º´ÉÒEòÉ®ú ÊEòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ * BäºÉÉ ½þÒ ¨ÉÉèEòÉ nÖù¤ÉÉ®úÉ +ɪÉÉ 1911 ¨Éå VÉ¤É {ÉäÊ®úºÉ EòÒ ®úÉìªÉ±É +EòÉnù¨ÉÒ +Éì¡ò ºÉɪÉxºÉ xÉä =x½åþ +{ÉxÉÉ '¡äò±ÉÉä' ¤ÉxÉÉxÉä ºÉä <ºÉʱɪÉä <ÆEòÉ®ú Eò®ú ÊnùªÉÉ ÊEò ´Éä ¨Éʽþ±ÉÉ lÉÓ * ¨Éä®úÒ EòÉ ºÉɨÉxÉÉ xÉ Eäò´É±É ÊxÉvÉÇxÉiÉÉ ºÉä lÉÉ ¤ÉαEò °üÊgø´ÉÉÊnùiÉÉ ºÉä ¦ÉÒ * <ºÉ PÉ]õxÉÉ Eäò SÉÉ®ú ½þÒ ¨É½þÒxÉä {ɶSÉÉiÉ VÉ¤É =ºÉ ´É¹ÉÇ Eäò xÉÉä¤É±É {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®úÉå EòÒ PÉÉä¹ÉhÉÉ ½Öþ<Ç iÉÉä =ºÉ ºÉÚSÉÒ ¨Éå Ê¡ò®ú BEò ¤ÉÉ®ú ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ EòÉ xÉÉ¨É lÉÉ - <ºÉ ¤ÉÉ®ú ®úºÉɪÉxɶÉɺjÉ EòÉ {ÉÖ®úºEòÉ®ú BEò xɪÉä iÉi´É ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É EòÒ JÉÉäVÉ Eäò ʱÉB *
<ºÉ nùÉè®úÉxÉ ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É Eäò +Éè¹ÉÊvÉ MÉÖhÉÉå {É®ú +x´Éä¹ÉhÉ |ÉÉ®Æú¦É ½þÉä SÉÖEäò lÉä +Éè®ú +º{ÉiÉɱÉÉå ¨Éå ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É ÊlÉ®ìú{ÉÒ EòÉ ={ɪÉÉäMÉ ¦ÉÒ ÊEòªÉÉ VÉÉxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ lÉÉ * iÉÖ¨½åþ VÉÉxÉEò®ú +ɶSɪÉÇ ½þÉäMÉÉ ÊEò ÊEòºÉÒ ¦ÉÒ +ªÉºEò ºÉä ¶ÉÖrù ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É ÊxÉEòɱÉxÉä EòÒ Ê´ÉÊvÉ ¨Éä®úÒ EòÒ Eò½þÉxÉÒ ªÉ½þÓ ºÉ¨ÉÉ{iÉ xɽþÓ ½þÉäiÉÒ +Éè®ú xÉ ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É EòÒ * £òÉÆºÉ EòÒ ºÉ®úEòÉ®ú xÉä ¨Éä®úÒ EòÒ +vªÉIÉiÉÉ ¨Éå ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É <ƺ]õÒ]õ¬Ú]õõ EòÒ ºlÉÉ{ÉxÉÉ EòÒ VɽþÉÆ +{ÉxÉä +ÎxiÉ¨É ÊnùxÉÉå iÉEò ¨Éä®úÒ EòÉ¨É Eò®úiÉÒ ®ú½þÓ * <ºÉÒ <ƺ]õÒ]õ¬Ú]õ ¨Éå EòÉ¨É Eò®úiÉä ½ÖþB =xÉEòÒ ´ÉèYÉÉÊxÉEò {ÉÖjÉÒ <®úÒxÉ EòÒ ¶ÉÉnùÒ £äòb÷Ê®úEò VªÉÖʱɪÉ]õ xÉÉ¨É ´ÉèYÉÉÊxÉEò ºÉä ½Öþ<Ç * ªÉ½þ VÉÉxÉxÉÉ +ɴɶªÉEò ½èþ ÊEò EÞòÊjÉ¨É ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉiÉÉ EòÉ ¨É½þi´É CªÉÉåEò®ú ½èþ * ¯ûnù®ú¡òÉäbÇ÷ xÉä ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉiÉÉ EòÒ ´ªÉÉJªÉÉ (ÊVɺÉä ½þ¨É +MɱÉä +vªÉÉªÉ ¨Éå {ÉgåøMÉä) Eò®úiÉä ½ÖþB ªÉ½þ ¤ÉiÉɪÉÉ ÊEò EòÉä<Ç ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉ iÉi´É VÉ¤É ¤ÉäCºÉä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉÉå EòÉ =iºÉVÉÇxÉ Eò®úiÉÉ ½èþ iÉÉä <ºÉ |ÉÊGòªÉÉ Eäò nùÉè®úÉxÉ =ºÉEòÉ {É®ú¨ÉÉhÉÖ ¦ÉÉ®ú +Éè®ú {É®ú¨ÉÉhÉÖ ºÉÆJªÉÉ ¤Énù±É VÉÉiÉä ½éþ * +lÉÉÇiÉ ´É½þ iÉi´É ¤Énù±ÉEò®ú nÚùºÉ®úÉ iÉi´É ¤ÉxÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ * |ɶxÉ ªÉ½þ ½èþ ÊEò ªÉ½þ ¤ÉäC´Éä®äú±É ÊEò®úhÉå CªÉÉ ½éþ, Eò½þÉÆ ºÉä +ÉiÉÒ ½éþ +Éè®ú ÊEòºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú BEò iÉi´É ºÉä ÊxÉEò±ÉEò®ú =ºÉä nÚùºÉ®äú iÉi´É ¨Éå ¤Énù±É näùiÉÒ ½éþ ±ÉäÊEòxÉ nÚùºÉ®úÒ BEò ¤ÉÉiÉ +ÊvÉEò MɽþxÉ ½èþ * SÉÚÆÊEò ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä-ºÉÊGòªÉiÉÉ Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ BEò iÉi´É nÚùºÉ®äú iÉi´É ¨Éå ¤Énù±É VÉÉiÉä ½éþ, CªÉÉ ´É½þ ºÉÆ¦É´É xɽþÓ ÊEò ÊEòºÉÒ BEò iÉi´É EòÉä VÉÉä |ÉÉEÞòÊiÉEò °ü{É ¨Éå ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä-ºÉÊGòªÉ xɽþÓ ½èþ - ¤Éɽþ®úÒ ={ÉɪÉÉå ºÉä ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉ ¤ÉxÉɪÉÉ VÉÉB iÉÉÊEò +{ÉxÉÒ <ºÉ ®äúÊb÷ªÉÉä ºÉÊGòªÉiÉÉ Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ EÖòUô ÊEò®úhÉå =iºÉÌVÉiÉ Eò®úxÉä Eäò ¤ÉÉnù ´É½þ nÚùºÉ®äú iÉi´É ¨ÉÆ ¤Énù±É VÉÉB * ªÉÉxÉÒ ½þ¨É =ºÉÒ {ÉÖ®úÉxÉÒ Eòɱ{ÉÊxÉEò {ÉÉ®úºÉ¨ÉhÉÒ EòÒ Eò½þÉxÉÒ {É®ú +É {ɽÖÆþSÉiÉä ½éþ ÊVɺÉEäò uùÉ®úÉ ±ÉÉä½äþ ±ÉÉä½äþ EòÉä ºÉÉäxÉÉ ¤ÉxÉɪÉÉ VÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÉ ½èþ * <ºÉ Eò±{ÉxÉÉ EòÉä ºÉ½þÒ Eò®ú ÊnùJÉɪÉÉ <®úÒxÉ +Éè®ú £äòb÷Ê®úEò xÉä * <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú +xiÉiÉ: BEò {ÉÉ®úºÉ¨ÉhÉÒ EòÒ JÉÉäVÉ ½Öþ<Ç * ªÉ½þ {ÉÉ®úºÉ¨ÉhÉÒ =ºÉ ºÉÉäxÉä ºÉä Eò<Ç MÉÖxÉÉ EòÒ¨ÉiÉÒ ½èþ VÉÉä Ê´É·É Eäò iÉÉ®äú ±ÉÉä½äþ EòÉä ºÉÉäxÉÉ ¤ÉxÉÉxÉä {É®ú ʨɱÉiÉÉ *
VÉÖ±ÉÉ<Ç 1934 ¨Éå ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ EòÒ ¨ÉÞiªÉÖ ½Öþ<Ç * ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É ºÉä =iºÉÌVÉiÉ ½þÉäxÉä ´ÉɱÉä ÊEò®úhÉÉå Eäò +iªÉÊvÉEò ºÉƺÉMÉÇ ºÉä =x½åþ ¤±Éb÷ EéòºÉ®ú ½þÉä MɪÉÉ lÉÉ * ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É EòÉä ¨Éä®úÒ CªÉÚ®úÒ xÉä fÚÆøføEò®ú ÊxÉEòɱÉÉ * ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É xÉä =x½åþ |ÉÊiɹ`öÉ Eäò ºÉ´ÉÉæSSÉ Ê¶ÉJÉ®ú {É®ú ¤Éè`öɪÉÉ +Éè®ú ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É Eäò =iºÉVÉÇxÉ ºÉä ½þÒ =xÉEòÒ ¨ÉÞiªÉÖ ½Öþ<Ç * <ºÉÒ ®äúÊb÷ªÉ¨É-=iºÉVÉÇxÉ EòÒ ºÉÒʨÉiÉ ¨ÉÉjÉÉ ºÉä ½þ¨É +ÉVÉ EéòºÉ®ú EòÉ <±ÉÉVÉ Eò®úiÉä ½éþ *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------